Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of monomeric, arylpalladium halide complexes with a hindered phosphine as the only dative ligand
We report the isolation and structural characterization of several monomeric arylpalladium(II) halide complexes containing tri-tert-butyl phosphine, 1-adamantyl-di-tert-butylphosphine, or 2-adamantyl-di-tert-butylphosphine. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and theoretical studies indicated that the complexes may be stabilized by agostic interactions. For example, the distance from the closest hydrogen atom to the palladium metal center in the X-ray structure of the 1-adamantyl-phenylpalladium bromide complex 1 was 2.26(3) Å. The calculated Pd−H distance of 2.28 Å and harmonic vibrational frequencies were in agreement with the measured distance, but Wiberg bond indices indicated only weak M−H−C interactions. Addition of 2-adamantyl-di-tert-butyl phosphine to 1 led to ligand exchange and formation of 2-adamantyl-di-tert-butyl phosphine complex 2. Addition of P(t-Bu)3 generated free aryl bromide and Pd[P(t-Bu)3]2. Reactivity of complex 1 with nucleophiles provided evidence of the intermediacy of these complexes in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Complex 1 reacted with amine and base to form the corresponding arylamine, with tert-butoxide to form the corresponding ether, with boronic acid and fluoride to form the corresponding biaryl, and with styrene to form stilbene. This complex also catalyzed the reaction of bromobenzene with diphenylamine in the presence of base to produce 94% of the amination product in 45 min at room temperature. This rate is comparable to the reaction rate of in situ generated catalysts.
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