Mechanism of the Iridium-Catalyzed Silylation of Aromatic C–H Bonds
Phenanthroline ligands and [Ir(cod)(OMe)]2 form complexes that catalyze the silylation of aromatic and aliphatic C–H bonds. However, no experimental data on the identity of complexes related to the mechanism of this process or the mechanisms by which they react to functionalize C–H bonds have been reported. Herein, we describe our studies on the mechanism of the iridium-catalyzed silylation of aryl C–H bonds. The resting state of the catalyst is an iridium disilyl hydride complex (phenanthroline)Ir(SiMe(OTMS)2)2(H)(L), in which L varies with the arene and additives. An iridium disilyl hydride complex was isolated, characterized, and allowed to react with arenes to form aryl silanes. The kinetics of the reactions of electron-rich and electron-poor arenes showed that the rate-limiting step varies with the electronic properties of the arene. Computational studies on related iridium silyl complexes revealed that the high activity of iridium complexes containing sterically encumbered phenanthroline ligands is due to a change in the number of silyl groups bound to iridium between the resting state of the catalyst containing the hindered phenanthroline and that containing less-hindered phenanthroline.
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